Langston Hughes Papers

Size: 6 linear feet (12 archival boxes, one oversized)
Repository: Chicago Public Library, Woodson Regional Library, Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature, 9525 S. Halsted Street, Chicago, Illinois 60628
Collection Number:  1942/03
Provenance:  Donated by Langston Hughes, 1942
Access: No restrictions
Citation: When quoting material from this collection the preferred citation is: Langston Hughes Papers, [Box #, Folder #], Chicago Public Library, Woodson Regional Library, Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature
Processed by: Michael Flug, Senior Archivist, Harsh Archival Processing Project

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

Langston Hughes in Chicago

One of the finest and best-known American writers of the twentieth century, Langston Hughes excelled at a wide range of genres. He was acclaimed for his poetry, plays, memoirs, short stories, translations and literary criticism. He was born James Mercer Langston Hughes on February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. Early in his childhood his parents, Carrie Langston Hughes and James Hughes, moved to Lawrence, Kansas, where his maternal grandfather owned a grocery store. He moved several times in his childhood, later living in Lincoln, Illinois and Cleveland, Ohio. Langston Hughes’ great-uncle was John Mercer Langston, a prominent Abolitionist, who was later one of the few 19th century African Americans elected to Congress.

The Big Sea, the sole subject of this manuscript collection, is Langston Hughes’ memoir of his life from childhood years through his world travels to his participation in the Harlem Renaissance. The first draft of the book was written in Chicago, from April 24 through May 26, 1939, while Hughes was living in the Hotel Grand, at 51st and South Parkway.

He had already been a regular visitor to Chicago. In April 1938 he spoke at the George Cleveland Hall branch of the Chicago Public Library on his experiences in the Spanish Civil War. He returned in November 1938, when his play, “Don’t You Want To Be Free?”, was performed by Chicago’s Negro People’s Theater, at the Abraham Lincoln Center. A later reception for Hughes at the Center featured a “who’s who” of Chicago’s African American writers, artists, and political activists.

In 1940, he again visited Hall Branch Library to speak at Vivian Harsh’s “Book Review and Lecture Forum,” discussing The Big Sea. It was at this event that Vivian Harsh convinced Hughes to donate the manuscript drafts of The Big Sea to what was then called the “Special Negro Collection” at Hall Branch Library. This event took place during the run of the famed American Negro Exposition, held at the Chicago Coliseum. Hughes played an important role in the planning of the Exposition, working with the event’s leader, Truman Gibson, and with another friend, Howard University professor Alain Locke.

One of the attractions of Chicago was his close friendship with another highly regarded writer, Arna Bontemps, then living in Chicago and working as co-director of the Illinois Writers’ Project’s “Negro in Illinois” study. In their lives, Hughes and Bontemps exchanged at least 2,300 letters, many of them centered on people and places in Chicago that were important to them.

Hughes also formed a friendship with Horace Cayton, then director of Chicago’s Parkway Community House, located near the Hotel Grand. Cayton asked Hughes to create an in-house theater group at Parkway, to be named the Skyloft Players. Hughes wrote the group’s first play, “The Sun Do Move,” and directed its premiere performances in April 1942.

Though he never lived in Chicago for any significant length of time, Langston Hughes had a great impact on Chicago, and Chicago helped shape his work.

Sources

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

Series 1: The Big Sea, First Draft, 1939

This series consists of all extant pages of the draft typed and then hand-corrected in pencil by Langston Hughes, working at the Hotel Grand in Chicago from April 24 to May 26, 1939. The draft is presented in the order in which it was arranged by Hughes. Toward the end of the manuscript some of the chapters contain two typescript versions. Several other chapters, which appear in later drafts, do not appear in this first effort. The order and titles of the chapters also undergo significant changes from this draft to later versions. According to Hughes, the penciled corrections were added when he reread each chapter at the end of the first draft.

.Series 2: The Big Sea, Second Draft, 1939

This series consists of all extant pages of the draft typed and then hand-corrected in pencil by Langston Hughes. It was completed on October 3, 1939 at a writer’s colony, Hollow Hills Farm, located in Monterey, California. The draft is presented in the order in which it was arranged by Hughes. It appears much closer to the final published book. Several chapters which do not appear in the first draft are now added. Titles of chapters are changed, and contents are significantly revised in others. Hughes told his Chicago Public Library audience that in the second draft he made penciled revisions soon after some of the chapters were written, and did not wait until the whole second draft was completed. Even so, there are chapters added in the second draft which were late insertions; these have no pagination.

Series 3: The Big Sea, Third Draft, 1939

On the title page of the third draft, Langston Hughes wrote that this draft was the “final copy as delivered to the publishers.” The content of this draft is nearly the same as what was set in type for the galley proofs. Nevertheless, there are several pages of the third draft which are missing. We do not know whether these were lost by Hughes before he donated all the drafts to the Special Negro Collection at George Cleveland Hall branch of the Chicago Public Library, or whether they were lost at some later date.

Series 4: “Big Sea” Fragments, and a short story, “Spanish Blood”

Thirteen (13) pages of manuscript fragments, found in a separate envelope, are included in this series. Four (4) of these pages appear to have been part of a chapter of the book entitled “Literary Quarrel,” on a dispute Hughes had with Zora Neale Hurston while the two of them were working on a play, “Mulebone.” Also included in this series is a short story entitled “Spanish Blood.” Hughes wrote the story in 1934 and it was published in a magazine then. An introductory paragraph to this typescript, as well as page numbers added, seems to show that Hughes intended to include it in the second draft of The Big Sea. In the end, it did not become part of the book.

Series 5: Galley Proofs of “The Big Sea”

This series consists of all the galley proofs of The Big Sea sent to Hughes by the typesetters at H. Wolff Book Manufacturing Company, June 7, 1940. On the first galley, Hughes wrote: “Read and corrected by Langston Hughes, June 15, 1940, Hotel Grand, Chicago.” Hughes was instructed to make only corrections of typographical errors, but an examination of the galleys reveals a significant number of authorial changes.

Series 6: Addendum to the Langston Hughes Papers

RELATED MATERIALS

Related materials at the Chicago Public Library include:

Related materials at other institutions include:

CONTAINER LIST

Series 1— “The Big Sea,” First Draft

Box 1 Folder 1 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, Title Page, “written in Chicago, Hotel Grand, April 24-May 26, 1939,” and “The Big Sea,” pp. 1-6
Box 1 2 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Negro,” pp. 7-12
Box 1 3 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “The Mother of the Gracchi,” pp. 13-15
Box 1 4 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Central High,” pp. 16-20
Box 1 5 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Abrupt Encounter,” pp. 21-23
Box 1 6 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “My Father,” pp. 24-31
Box 1 7 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “ Back Home, and “Mexico Again,” pp. 32-41
Box 1 8 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Means of Escape,” pp. 42-45
Box 1 9 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Winter in Toluca,” and “Manhattan Island,” pp. 46-51, plus inserts
Box 1 10 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Reservation,” and “Columbia,” pp. 52-53
Box 1 11 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Work,” and “Africa,” pp. 54-62b
Box 1 12 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Sailors’ Holiday,” pp. 63-67 [no page 64]
Box 1 13 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “S.S. Malone,” pp. 68a-72
Box 1 14 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Voyage Home,” and “Standee,” pp. 73-76
Box 1 15 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Jocko,” and “Bad Luck is Good,” pp. 78-82
Box 1 16 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Winter Seas to Rotterdam,” and “Montmartre,” pp. 83-90
Box 1 17 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Our Jobs,” pp. 91-92
Box 1 18 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Le Grand Duc,” pp. 93-95
Box 1 19 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Paris in the Spring,” pp. 96-100
Box 1 20 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Don’t Hit a Woman,” pp. 101-103
Box 1 21 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Bricktop,” pp. 104-106
Box 1 22 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Chef With One Eye,” pp. 107-108
Box 2 1 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Distinguished Visitor,” pp. 109-112
Box 2 2 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Beachcomber,” pp. 113-117
Box 2 3 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Workaway,” pp. 118-120
Box 2 4 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Washington Society,” pp. 120a- 125
Box 2 5 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Vachel Lindsay,” pp. 126-128
Box 2 6 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Poetry is Practical,” pp. 129-132
Box 2 7 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “When the Negro Was In Vogue,” pp. 133-136
Box 2 8 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Harlem Literatti (sic),” pp. 137-142
Box 2 9 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Parties,” pp. 142-145
Box 2 10 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Downtown,” pp. 146- 149a
Box 2 11 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Shows,” pp. 149b- 152
Box 2 12 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Poetry,” pp. 153-157 [there are two pages numbered 154]
Box 2 13 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Nigger Heaven,” pp. 158-`60
Box 2 14 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Gurdijeff (sic) in Harlem,” pp. 160a- 160b
Box 2 15 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Spectacles in Color,” pp. 161-165
Box 2 16 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Lincoln University,” pp. 167a-169 [two typescript versions]
Box 2 17 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Flood on the Mississippi,” pp. 169-173 [two typescript versions]
Box 3 1 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “New Orleans,” pp. 174-179 [two typescript versions]
Box 3 2 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Old Hat,” pp. 178b- 179(?) [two typescript versions]
Box 3 3 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Friend,” pp. 1-8 [page numbers not in sequence]
Box 3 4 “The Big Sea,” First Draft, “Literary Quarrel,” pp. 9- 12 [page numbers not in sequence]

Series 2— “The Big Sea,” Second Draft

Box 4 1 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, Title and Table of Contents, written at “Hollow Hills”[Farm, Monterey, California], October 3, 1939
Box 4 2 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Beyond Sandy Hook,” pp. 1-7
Box 4 3 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Negro,” pp. 8-14
Box 4 4 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Mother of the Gracchi,” pp. 15-17
Box 4 5 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Central High,” pp. 18-23
Box 4 6 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Encounter,” pp. 24-26
Box 4 7 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “My Father,” pp. 27-34
Box 4 8 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Back Home,” p. 35
Box 4 9 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “I’ve Known Rivers,” pp. 36-46
Box 4 10 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Means of Escape,” pp. 47-48
Box 4 11 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Card From Cuernavaca,” pp. 49-50
Box 4 12 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Bullfights,” pp. 51-55
Box 4 13 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Departure,” pp. 56-57
Box 4 14 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “”Manhattan Island,” p. 58
Box 4 15 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Dormitory,” pp. 59-60
Box 4 16 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Columbia,” pp. 61-62
Box 4 17 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “”On My Own,” pp. 63-64
Box 4 18 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Haunted Ship,” pp. 65-70
Box 4 19 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Time to Leave,” pp. 71-72
Box 4 20 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Africa,” pp. 72a-75
Box 4 21 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Sailor’s Holiday,” pp. 76-80 [no p.77, but no break in text]
Box 4 22 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “S.S. Malone,” pp. 81-86
Box 5 1 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, Part II “(copied by Miss King),” and “Wreck of the Monkey Cage,” pp. 87-89
Box 5 2 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Voyage Home,” pp. 89a- 92
Box 5 3 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Standee,” pp. 93-96
Box 5 4 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Jocko,” pp. 97-101 [there are two page 99s]
Box 5 5 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Bad Luck is Good,” pp. 102-103
Box 5 6 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Winter Seas to Rotterdam,” pp. 104-108
Box 5 7 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Montmartre,” pp. 109-115
Box 5 8 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Work,” pp. 116-120
Box 5 9 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Le Grand Duc,” pp. 121-123c
Box 5 10 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Paris in the Spring,” pp. 124-129, and “poem,” no pagination
Box 5 11 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Don’t Hit a Woman,” pp. 130-133
Box 5 12 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Bricktop,” pp. 134-138
Box 5 13 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Chef One Eye,” pp. 139-141
Box 5 14 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Distinguished Visitor,” pp. 142-143
Box 5 15 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Italy,” pp. 144-147
Box 5 16 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Beachcomber,” pp. 148-153
Box 5 17 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Workaway,” pp. 154-157
Box 6 1 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Washington Society,” pp. 158-164
Box 6 2 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Vachel Lindsay,” pp. 165-168
Box 6 3 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Poetry is Practical,” pp. 169-173b
Box 6 4 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “When the Negro Was in Vogue,” pp. 174-179
Box 6 5 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Harlem Literatti,” pp. 180-185
Box 6 6 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Gurdjieff in Harlem,” , pp. 185a-185b
Box 6 7 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Parties,” pp. 186-191
Box 6 8 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Downtown,” pp. 192-196
Box 6 9 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Shows,” pp. 197-201
Box 6 10 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Poetry,” pp. 202-206b
Box 7 1 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Nigger Heaven, pp. 207-210
Box 7 2 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “The Racial Mountain,” pp. 211-213c
Box 7 3 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Spectacles in Color,” pp. 213(?) -218
Box 7 4 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Interracial Conference,” no pagination [2 pages]
Box 7 5 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Not Without Laughter,” no pagination [2 pages]
Box 7 6 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Alma Mater,” no pagination, [1 page]
Box 7 7 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Patron and Friend,” pp. 219-225d
Box 7 8 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Not Primitive,” pp. 224c (?)- 226
Box 7 9 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Diagnosis,” pp. 227-230
Box 7 10 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Literary Quarrel,” pp. 231-234
Box 7 11 “The Big Sea,” Second Draft, “Postscript,” p. 235 [2 pages, two typescript versions]

Series 3—“The Big Sea,” Third Draft

Box 8 1 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, Title page: “final copy as delivered to the publishers. 410 pages”. Plus “Beyond Sandy Hook,” pp. 1-11
Box 8 2 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Negro,” pp. 12-20
Box 8 3 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Salvation,” pp. 21-24
Box 8 4 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “The Mother of the Gracchi,” pp. 25-31
Box 8 5 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Central High,” pp. 32-41 [missing p. 40]
Box 8 6 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Abrupt Encounter,” pp. 42-47
Box 8 7 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Father,” pp. 48-62
Box 8 8 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Back Home,” pp. 63-64
Box 8 9 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “I’ve Known Rivers,” pp. 65-67 [missing pp. 68-71?]
Box 8 10 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Mexico Again,” pp. 72-80
Box 8 11 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Promenade,” pp. 81-84
Box 8 12 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Means of Escape,” pp.85-86
Box 8 13 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Card from Cuernavaca,” pp. 87-89
Box 8 14 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Bullfights,” pp. 90-93
Box 8 15 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Tragedy in Toluca,” pp. 94-101
Box 8 16 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Departure,” pp. 102-104
Box 8 17 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Manhattan Island,” pp. 105-107
Box 8 18 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Dormitory,” pp. 108-109
Box 8 19 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Columbia,” pp. 110-112
Box 8 20 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “On My Own,” pp. 113-118
Box 8 21 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Haunted Ship,” pp. 119-127
Box 8 22 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Time to Leave,” pp. 128-129
Box 8 23 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Africa,” pp. 130-135
Box 8 24 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Sailors’ Holiday,” pp. 136-141
Box 8 25 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “S.S. Malone,” pp. 142-148
Box 8 26 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “”Burutu Moon,” pp. 149-152
Box 8 27 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Wreck of the Monkey Cage,” pp. 153-155
Box 8 28 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Voyage Home,” pp. 156-160
Box 8 29 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Standee,” pp. 161-165
Box 9 1 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Jocko,” pp. 166-172
Box 9 2 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Bad Luck is Good,” pp. 173-174
Box 9 3 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Winter Seas to Rotterdam,” pp. 175-180
Box 9 4 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Montmartre,” pp. 181-189
Box 9 5 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Work,” pp. 190-196
Box 9 6 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Le Grand Duc,” pp. 197-202
Box 9 7 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Paris in the Spring,” pp. 203-210
Box 9 8 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Poem,” p. 211
Box 9 9 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Don’t Hit a Woman,” pp. 212-217
Box 9 10 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “”Bricktop,” pp. 218-221
Box 9 11 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “”Late Place,” pp. 222-224
Box 9 12 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Chef One-Eye,” pp. 225-228
Box 9 13 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Distinguished Visitor,” pp. 229-231
Box 9 14 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Italy,” pp. 232-236
Box 9 15 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Beachcomber,” pp. 237-244 [missing p. 238]
Box 9 16 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Workaway,” pp. 245-249
Box 9 17 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Washington Society,” pp. 250-259
Box 9 18 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Vachel Lindsay,” pp. 260-263
Box 9 19 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Poetry is Practical,” pp. 264-270 [missing p. 267]
Box 10 1 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “When the Negro Was In Vogue,” pp. 271-282 [pp. 280-281 not in manuscript; they are reproductions of party invitations]
Box 10 2 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Harlem Literatti,” pp. 283-293
Box 10 3 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Gurdijeff in Harlem,” pp. 294-296
Box 10 4 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Parties,” pp. 297-304
Box 10 5 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Downtown,” pp. 305-311
Box 10 6 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Shows,” pp. 312-316
Box 10 7 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Poetry,” pp. 317-326
Box 10 8 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Nigger Heaven,” pp. 317-331
Box 10 9 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Spectacles in Color,” pp. 332-339
Box 10 10 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Lincoln University,” pp. 340-346
Box 10 11 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, Flood on the Mississippi,” pp. 347-352
Box 10 12 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “New Orleans-Havana,” pp. 353-356
Box 10 13 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Creoles and Conjur?,” pp. 357-362
Box 10 14 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Old Hat,” pp. 363-365
Box 10 15 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Interracial Conference,” pp. 366-368
Box 10 16 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Not Without Laughter,” pp. 369-372
Box 10 17 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Alma Mater,” pp. 372a-377
Box 10 18 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Patron and Friend,” pp. 378-394
Box 10 19 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Not Primitive,” pp. 395-397
Box 10 20 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Diagnosis,” pp. 398-403
Box 10 21 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Literary Quarrel, pp. 404-408
Box 10 22 “The Big Sea,” Third Draft, “Postscript,” pp. 409-410

Series 4— “Big Sea” Fragments, and a short story, “Spanish Blood

Box 11 1 Thirteen pages of fragments rewritten and/or excluded by Langston Hughes were found in the “Big Sea” folders. Four of these pages appear to have been part of a chapter of the book entitled “Literary Quarrel,” about work he did with Zora Neale Hurston.
Box 11 2 Typescript of “Spanish Blood,” a short story by Langston Hughes first published in “Metropolis,” December 29, 1934. A one paragraph preface by Hughes appears to have been added to insert the story in the second draft of “The Big Sea,” pp. 219-230.

Series 5— “Big Sea” galley proofs

Box 12 1 Galley proofs of “The Big Sea,” sent to Langston Hughes by the typesetters, H. Wolff Book Manufacturing Company, June 7, 1940. On the first galley, Hughes wrote: “Read and corrected by Langston Hughes, June 15, 1940, Hotel Grand, Chicago”

Series 6— Additional Langston Hughes documents

Box 13 Folder 1 “Dramatic Contract” between Marjones Productions, Inc. (Manager) and Langston Hughes (Author) to produce Langston Hughes’ play, “Mulatto”, signed September 2, 1935
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